Sialadenitis

Sialadenitis Definition

It refers to a condition marked by inflammation of the salivary glands, or the glands that produce saliva in the mouth. The disease is also known as Sialoadenitis.

Sialadenitis ICD 9 Code

The ICD 9 code for Sialadenitis is 527.2.

Sialadenitis Types

The various types of Sialadenitis are:

Bacterial Sialadenitis

As the name indicates, it is caused due to bacterial infection. The condition occurs into two forms that are known as:

Acute Bacterial Sialadenitis

This rare condition mainly affects the Parotid Gland and is caused mainly due to Staphyloccus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes bacterial infection.

Chronic Bacterial Sialadenitis

The condition primarily involves the submandibular gland and leads to a reduction of the flow of saliva. It most often occurs due to blockage of the salivary duct caused by duct stones, a condition known as Salivary Calculi.

Viral Sialadenitis

It is a common acute viral disease that is popularly known as Mumps. It primarily affects the parotid glands and is highly infectious. It is the most common cause of acute parotid swelling.

Postirradiation Sialadenitis

It is a common complication of radiotherapy. It involves infection in highly damaged salivary glands which is often irreversible but causes less damage.  The function of salivary gland may return to some degree after several months.

What is Chronic Sclerosing Sialadenitis?

It is a fibroinflammatory disorder affecting the salivary glands. It was first recognized in 1896 by Kuttner and is, hence, also known as Kuttner’s tumor (KT). It appears as a benign tumor-like lesion and mainly affects the Submandibular gland, a salivary gland located inside the lower jaw that releases saliva under the tongue into the mouth.

What is Lymphoepithelial Sialadenitis?

It is an autoimmune lesion. It is said to be a component of Sjogren Syndrome and features a benign lymphoid infiltrate of salivary glands along with Lymphocytic Epitheliotropism.

Sialadenitis Symptoms

Some of the common symptoms of Sialadenitis include:

  • Facial pain, with pain originating in the entire angle of the jaw or underneath the jaw
  • Tenderness
  • Inflammation over the salivary glands

The symptoms of this condition may vary depending on the intensity of an infection. Most individuals suffer from a little pain while opening their mouths. Additional symptoms may include

  • Noticeable facial inflammation
  • Redness of skin
  • Dryness of mouth
  • Persistent bad taste in mouth

In case of acute infections, fever is also common. If an infected gland is left untreated, a pus-filled abscess may develop that may drain into the mouth and the throat.

Sialadenitis Causes

Know about the causes of various types of this condition.

Bacterial Sialadenitis Causes

Most cases of Acute Sialadenitis result due to bacterial attacks, especially infections caused by the Staphylococcus variety. Some of the primary causes of bacterial infection are

  • Poor oral hygiene
  • Weakened immunity
  • Obstruction or abnormalities in duct or gland
  • Sjögren syndrome

Bacterial infection is also found to occur due to dehydration after an abdominal surgery or Radiotherapy conducted for salivary gland or oral cancer.

Viral Sialadenitis Causes

The condition also arises due to viral infections such as HIV, Herpes or Mumps. These may give rise to sudden salivary gland inflammation.

Postirradiation Sialadenitis Causes

It is directly associated with the dose of radiation administered to a patient

Chronic Sialadenitis Causes

Chronic Sialadenitis often results from obstruction of the salivary glands caused by

  • Salivary stones
  • Hard deposits of minerals like calcium

In rare cases, a person can experience this condition as a side effect of reaction of immune system to medicines administered for the treatment of other glandular conditions.

Sialadenitis Diagnosis

An infection of the salivary gland is usually diagnosed by a dentist or general physician. Healthcare providers generally diagnose the condition by touching the face of the patients, asking them about the symptoms as well as testing blood and saliva to detect bacterial presence. If the diagnosis is found to be difficult to confirm, patients can be referred to specialists for further testing. Computerized tomography (CT) scans of the neck and head are also conducted to ascertain the severity of inflammation and seek possible cancerous symptoms.

Sialadenitis Treatment

Treatment for Sialadenitis involves use of medications like antibiotics, analgesics (such as Acetaminophen) or NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines). These help alleviate pain and cure fever. Severe cases of infection may require surgery.

Treatment usually depends on the type of Sialadenitis that a patient has been affected with.

Bacterial Sialadenitis Treatment

Most cases of bacterial infection can be cured by good oral hygiene and use of antibiotics. Any soft inflammation should be drained through surgical means. It is important to use supportive therapy, in the form of painkillers, adequate fluid intake and practice of proper oral hygiene. Once the acute condition resolves, it is important to detect and resolve the causative factors, such as duct stones.

Viral Sialadenitis Treatment

The intensity of symptoms caused by viral infections is usually reduced with the aid of medications. The cheeks of a patient may be massaged and warmed with a hot compress to help lessen pain and inflammation.

Chronic Sialadenitis Treatment

Treatment of this condition can vary depending on the location of the duct stone. If the stone is found to be positioned within the duct, the duct can be removed altogether. If the stone is within the gland, the entire gland requires to be surgically removed.

An acute infection may require hospitalization and immediate surgery for correction. Surgery involves extraction of the pus from within the abscess through needle aspiration of the gland. In less common cases, partial or total surgical removal of a salivary gland may become necessary to cure an infection.

Sialadenitis Management

Patients who undergo surgery are generally prescribed antibiotics. They require follow-up visits to make sure that the condition has resolved. With practice of good hygiene and regular trips to a dentist, most sufferers do not experience recurrence of the condition.

With proper treatment and lifestyle modifications, most cases of Sialadenitis resolve quickly. If you are suffering from respiratory or swallowing difficulties, immediately contact a doctor. If the cause is Sialadenitis, early cure will definitely help you achieve a faster recovery.

One Response

  1. martha holmgren February 1, 2012

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