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Heart, Blood and Circulation
White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) Types and Functions
What are white blood cells? White blood cells or leukocytes are immune cells, which help protect against infections and foreign bodies. They appear in the blood and lymphatic system: the lymph, lymph nodes, liver, spleen and thymus. In the blood, they represent one of the three main blood cell types; the other ...
What is atherosclerosis? Atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis refers to a buildup of plaques in the arteries and thus their hardening and narrowing. Atherosclerosis word origin: from the Greek atheros = gruel - a soft, cooked cereal, which refers to a plaque + sclerosis = hardening 
Infective Endocarditis Definition Infective Endocarditis (IE) is a type of endocarditis (swelling of the heart valves and the endocardium) caused by infectious agents like bacteria or fungi .
Hypovolemia Definition In medicine and physiology, Hypovolemia or Hypovolaemia is a condition characterized by significant decrease in the blood volume of an individual. More specifically, the term is used to refer to the condition of decreased blood plasma.
What is Megaloblastic Anemia? Megaloblastic anemia (MA) is a form of anemia that is caused by suppression of DNA synthesis in the production of red blood cells. When the DNA synthesis is hampered, cell cycle cannot proceed from G2 growth stage to mitosis or M stage. This causes continuation of cell growth ...
Respiratory Acidosis Definition Respiratory acidosis can be defined as a medical condition in which hypoventilation or decreased ventilation leads to an increase in the concentration of blood carbon dioxide and decreased pH or acidosis.
Renal Artery Stenosis
What is Renal Artery Stenosis? Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a condition characterized by the narrowing of renal arteries which can restrict the flow of blood to the kidneys. This can lead to renovascular hypertension (high blood pressure) and impaired kidney functions or renal failure. If only the artery to either of ...
Carotid Artery Dissection
It refers to a tear in one of the four carotid arteries in the body. It is considered to be one of the most reasons for ischemic stroke in young adults. The carotid artery is a prime blood vessel which passes from the aorta into the neck beside the trachea and just ...
Antiphospholipid Syndrome (Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome )
What is Antiphospholipid Syndrome? Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the production of antibodies that mistakenly attack some normal proteins in the blood. The functioning of these antibodies can lead to blood clotting within the veins and arteries as well as serious pregnancy complications like miscarriages and stillbirths. Blood ...
Lacunar Infarct (Lacunar Stroke)
Lacunar Infarct (LACI) is a kind of stroke that affects the brain of an individual. Know all about this condition, its various symptoms and how it is treated. Lacunar Infarct Definition It is a form of stroke which occurs due to the blockage of a penetrating artery that controls the blood supply to ...
What is Pancreatitis? It is a condition that leads to swelling of the pancreas, a gland that can be found ...